How is New York City Government Doing?
Key Indicator Trends During the Bloomberg Administration
The Mayor’s Management Report provides detailed information to the public on more than 1,400 indicators. This section of the report offers a snapshot of trends occurring during the Bloomberg Administration for issues of high interest to New York City residents. Fiscal 2001, covering July 2000 – June 2001 and the last full year of the Giuliani Administration, is used, whenever possible, as the starting point for comparison.
Public Safety and Legal Affairs
In the short-term major felony crime rose 0.7 percent in Fiscal 2013 from 109,299 in Fiscal 2012 to 110,099 in Fiscal 2013 and 160 four percent comparing Fiscal 2011 to Fiscal 2012. However, the number of major felony crimes decreased by approximately 36 percent compared to Fiscal 2001 while murder decreased 42 percent. Forcible rape, felonious assault, felony crimes in housing developments and felony crimes in the transit system are trending upward over the mid-term.
Civilian fire fatalities fell dramatically in Fiscal 2013 from 70 in Fiscal 2012 to 47 in Fiscal 2013, a 33 percent drop. Fire fatalities have fallen steadily during the Administration. In Fiscal 2001, 107 people perished in New York City fires compared to 47 in Fiscal 2013, a 56 percent reduction. The number of serious fires has also decreased significantly over the past 12 years from 3,337 in Fiscal 2001 to 2,603 in Fiscal 2013, a 22 percent reduction. (N.B. These data do not include lives lost in the attack on the World Trade Center in September 2001.)
Traffic fatalities for both motorists/passengers and bicyclists/ pedestrians fell in Fiscal 2013, 19 percent and five percent 200 respectively. Despite significant increases in Fiscal 2012, motorist/ passenger fatalities were 48 percent lower in Fiscal 2013 compared 150 to Fiscal 2001, while bicyclist/pedestrian fatalities were 19 percent lower over the same period.
Crime in Schools
Major felony crime in the City’s public schools fell 14 percent in Fiscal 2013, continuing a downward trend established early in the Administration. Since Fiscal 2001, major felony crime in schools has fallen by 56 percent with the only significant increase occurring in Fiscal 2004. Other school safety crimes are down 20 percent in Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012 and 47 percent over the past 12 years.
Fire Department average response time to structural fires increased by six seconds between Fiscal 2012 and 2013 and, despite falling 24 seconds over the mid-term, is 12 seconds slower than the Fiscal 2001 level. Police response to the most serious crimes in progress, called critical, also increased by six seconds, on average, compared to Fiscal 2012 and has increased by 24 seconds compared to Fiscal 2008, but, over the long-term, critical crime response time was one minute and 18 seconds faster in Fiscal 2013 than in Fiscal 2001. In Fiscal 2013 new “end-to-end” response time metrics were introduced that include call segments now available due to technological enhancements.
Complaints of Police Misconduct
Complaints of police misconduct made to the Civilian Complaint Review Board fell nearly five percent in Fiscal 2013. After peaking in Fiscal 2009, complaints against police have fallen by 29 percent since then. However, over the long-term, complaints were 24 percent higher in Fiscal 2013 than in Fiscal 2001. The percent of allegations with findings on the merits has fallen fairly steadily throughout the Administration, from 67 percent in Fiscal 2001 to 42 percent in Fiscal 2013, a 25 percentage point reduction.
The average number of persons incarcerated on any given day fell from 12,287 inmates in Fiscal 2012 to 11,827 in Fiscal 2013, nearly a four percent reduction. With two exceptions, Fiscal 2003 and Fiscal 2007, the average daily population (ADP) of inmates in City jails has fallen approximately 2.8 percent per year on average. Over the long-term, the ADP is down 18 percent from the Fiscal 2001 level of 14,490.
The steady decline in the percent of medallion taxis failing initial safety and emissions tests slowed in Fiscal 2013 after falling by almost five percentage points in the prior fiscal year. At 33 percent, the Fiscal 2013 failure rate is the lowest in the past 12 years declining from a high of 53 percent in Fiscal 2004.
Quality of Life
The percent of streets rated acceptably clean fell by one percentage point to 94.5 percent in Fiscal 2013 based on monthly assessments of 6,000 randomly chosen blocks. The percent of acceptably clean streets has risen approximately eight percentage points compared to Fiscal 2001 with all of the gains occurring before Fiscal 2009.
Through an internal rating program, the Department of Parks and Recreation assesses the overall condition and cleanliness of all city parks. Both overall condition and cleanliness improved in Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012 breaking out of what appeared to be a slow, steady decline. At 90 percent the Fiscal 2013 park cleanliness rating was just one percentage point short of the highest level recorded in the past 12 years.
Public Library Attendance
In Fiscal 2013 New York City public libraries, citywide, logged 39.7 million visitors, a 7.6 percent drop compared to Fiscal 2012. Over the mid-term library attendance has fallen by 13 percent since its peak in Fiscal 2009. However, over the long-term, attendance is up by 4.5 percent compared to Fiscal 2001. The distribution of attendees has varied by library system, with Brooklyn and New York experiencing significant increases, while Queens’ attendance fell by 26 percent since Fiscal 2002.
Noise complaints to the Department of Environmental Protection increased by two percent in Fiscal 2013 compared to Fiscal 2012, from 35,363 to 36,130. Over the mid-term, noise complaints had 45 dropped significantly from a high in Fiscal 2008 of 49,200 before rising over the past two years. Over the long-term, no trend is 30 evident. The Department reports that since Fiscal 2006 more than 85 percent of these complaints were responded to within seven days.
Beginning in Fiscal 2011, operational responsibility for graffiti clean-up moved from the Department of Sanitation to the Economic Development Corporation. Square feet of graffiti cleaned leveled off in Fiscal 2013 at just over four million square feet after steadily dropping since Fiscal 2009. The number of sites cleaned went down for the second year but is still higher than the Fiscal 2009 amount.
The number of potholes in local streets repaired by the Department of Transportation increased in Fiscal 2013 by over 40,000 to 241,572, due primarily to damage caused by Hurricane Sandy. This was the third highest number of potholes repaired during the past 12 years. On average, the Department has repaired over 200,000 potholes per year since Fiscal 2001 with a strong upward trend influenced by very high years in Fiscal 2010 and 2011.
Health & Human Services
The percent of adults who smoke increased for the second year in a row in Fiscal 2013, from 14.0 percent in Fiscal 2011 to 15.5 percent in Fiscal 2013. Over the mid-term the Fiscal 2013 rate is not statistically different from the Fiscal 2009 rate but is 30 percent lower than in Fiscal 2003. According to the Centers for Disease Control, 19 percent of adults in the U.S. were smokers in 2011 compared to 14 percent of New Yorkers. (Data is calendar year but reported as fiscal year.)
The Health Department has discontinued reporting newAIDS cases, the dotted line on the graph. Instead, it tracks new HIV diagnoses which is more in line with the Department’s prevention mission. Both AIDS cases and new HIV diagnoses have fallen steadily in recent years with HIV diagnoses falling from 4,186 in Fiscal 2009 to 3,092 in Fiscal 2013, a 26 percent reduction. Over the long-term, new AIDS cases were down 64 percent between Fiscal 2001 and 2012.
After significant reductions between Fiscal 2007 and Fiscal 2009, the rate of asthma revisits to emergency rooms has inched upward in recent years. Since Fiscal 2001 the rate of adult asthma revisits has decreased by 24 percent while pediatric revisits returned to the Fiscal 2001 level. Despite these increases both continue to trend downward. (Fiscal 2013 data was unavailable at the time of publication.)
Cash Assistance Employment
In Fiscal 2013 the Human Resources Administration (HRA) placed more than 87,000 cash assistance recipients into jobs, 4.7 percent lower than in Fiscal 2012. Over the mid-term placement numbers have improved but the long-term trend for this indicator is downward, largely influenced by the relatively high placements in Fiscal 2001.
In Fiscal 2013 over 1.8 million New Yorkers received nutritional assistance from HRA. Formerly known as the Food Stamp Program, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) has increased enrollment every year since Fiscal 2003. The number of recipients in Fiscal 2013 is 124 percent higher than the number in Fiscal 2001.
Children in Care
The average number of children in foster care fell by over six percent between Fiscal 2012 and Fiscal 2013 continuing a steep downward trend that has continued throughout the Administration, with the number of children in foster care in Fiscal 2013 a full 60 percent lower than the number in Fiscal 2001. Average daily population of children in custody has also fallen sharply in recent years, falling from a high of 449 in Fiscal 2006 to 266 last year, a reduction of 41 percent. These substantial reductions are reflections of the City’s aggressive efforts to place children in settings more conducive to positive life outcomes for them.
The number of child abuse investigations has fallen over the short-term but increased between by Fiscal 2005 and Fiscal 2008. Over the long-term the trend is flat averaging approximately 56,000 per year. The percent of children experiencing reabuse within one year of a substantiated case decreased for the second year in a row in Fiscal 2013 falling from 16.2 to 16.1 percent. Despite a few stable periods, this indicator has increased consistently over the reporting period with recent rates over 80 percent higher than the Fiscal 2001 rate.
The Homeless Outreach Population Estimate (HOPE), a yearly census conducted by the Department of Homeless Services and its partners, found 3,180 homeless people on the street the night the census was conducted in January 2013, a four percent reduction compared to Fiscal 2012. Since Fiscal 2009, the population estimates have been up and down but relatively constant on average. In the long-term the estimate of those living on the street in 2013 is 28 percent lower than the baseline established in 2005. By contrast the sheltered homeless population has risen in the short- term, from an average of 39,673 in FY2012 to 47,084 in FY2013, and by 34% since Fiscal 2005.
Student Achievement: English and Math
As part of New York City public schools’ work to prepare students for future opportunities, students were challenged by the new Common Core standards. These learning standards describe what all students need to know and be able to do to graduate from high school ready for college and careers. For the first time in spring 2013, the 3rd-to-8th-grade State tests assessed the skills students are learning based on the Common Core standards. This year’s results form the baseline for student progress going forward highlighting opportunities for improvement in the coming school year. Impressively, New York City students have closed the gap in performance compared to New York State, overall, despite the City’s greater proportion of higher need students. Since 2006, the NYC- NYS gap in English proficiency decreased by 57% and in math decreased by 84%.
Student Achievement: Regents
In 2012, 57 percent more students passed the State Regents exam than in 2001 and the number of students passing increased from 16,300 in 2001 to 41,500 in 2012, a 152 percent increase. In 2012, the number of regents exams taken increased over the year before, and the passing rate declined nearly two percentage points to 68.7. The number of students sitting for the exam has increased steadily since 2002 due to increased graduation requirements. In 2012 the number of students taking the exam was 62 percent higher than in 2001.
The percent of all students and students with disabilities graduating in four years declined slightly in 2012, by less than one percent, due to an increase in the standards for graduation. Graduation rates have increased significantly since 2005, when New York State began reporting graduation rates Compared to 2005, graduation rates have increased 39 percent for all students and 78 percent for students with disabilities. Black and Hispanic students also made significant gains during the reporting period – from 40% to 60% for Black students and 37% to 50% for Hispanic students.
The Department of Youth and Community Development’s adult literacy programs provided services to nearly 120,000 New Yorkers since Fiscal 2001. The percent improving in literacy skills as a result of the literacy programs increased from 45 percent in Fiscal 2001 to 59 percent in Fiscal 2013. The percent of participants demonstrating 50% progress as determined by federal standards has increased steadily over the period from Fiscal 2003 through Fiscal 2013. The number of program participants has varied over the long-term from over 12,000 participants in Fiscal 2004 to fewer than 5,000 in Fiscal 2013.
Infrastructure & Sustainability
Drinking Water Supply
A key indicator of a robust and sustainable water supply system is the quality of its water mains. Between Fiscal 2012 and Fiscal 2013, the Department of Environmental Protection saw a slight uptick in water main breaks. Over the mid- and long-term the number of breaks per year has trended downward. The number of breaks in Fiscal 2013 was 23 percent lower than in Fiscal 2001.
The curbside and containerized recycling diversion rate held steady in Fiscal 2013 at 15.1 percent. This is the first year since Fiscal 2009 that the rate has not fallen. However the current rate is five percentage points lower than in Fiscal 2001 when the rate was 20.1 percent. The rate has fallen slowly over the entire reporting period. The City’s goal is to achieve a curbside and containerized recycling diversion rate of 25 percent by 2020.
Street and Bridge Condition
The percent of street pavement rated good or better fell by five percent between Fiscal 2012 and 2013 from 73.4 percent to 69.6 percent, as a result of damage caused by Hurricane Sandy. Over the mid-term, ratings have improved after a dip in Fiscal 2008. Over the long-term, 15 percent fewer streets were rated good or better in 2013 than in 2001. Bridge condition – those rated good or very good – has changed little during the mid-term, moving in the range of 41 – 42 percent between Fiscal 2004 and Fiscal 2013 after significant improvement between Fiscal 2001 and 2004. The percent of bridges in good or better condition was 17 percent higher in Fiscal 2013 than Fiscal 2003.
City Government GHG Emission Reduction
The City, through PlaNYC, set a goal of reducing total citywide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30 percent by the year 2030 relative to a 2005 base year, while pledging that City government would accelerate its own GHG reductions to achieve a 30 percent reduction by 2017. City efforts to reduce emissions through energy efficiency retrofits and more efficient lighting in City buildings (among other initiatives) began in Fiscal 2009. In Fiscal 2013 GHG reductions achieved from these investments were 8,306 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), a nearly 150 percent increase over the emissions reductions achieved in Fiscal 2012, reaching the ambitious target of 7,500 metric tons of CO2e reduced per year. For more information, see the 2013 PlaNYC Progress Report.
City Government Energy Use
After achieving the lowest utility energy purchases (electricity, natural gas, and steam) in ten years, energy use from these sources increased four percent in Fiscal 2013, primarily due to colder winter weather according to the Department of Citywide Administrative Services. In the mid-term, energy purchases have fallen sharply since Fiscal 2009 after increasing between Fiscal 2001 and 2002. Over the long-term purchases are trending upward.
In 2011 and 2012, fecal coliform concentrations were higher than average, primarily due to extreme weather events, including Hurricanes Irene and Sandy. An expanded network of monitoring sites was also a contributing factor. Despite these short-term increases, levels remain far below the bathing standard for a fecal coliform count of 200 cells per 100mL (3.3 ounces) which the City has achieved every year since 1990. (A “count” refers to the number of colony-forming units per 100 mL sample.) City government is engaged in numerous efforts to reduce New York City’s contribution to this indicator. For more information, see the 2013 PlaNYC Progress Report.
Since the beginning of the Bloomberg Administration, New York City has steadily improved its ranking for air quality based on airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) compared to the other eight largest U.S. cities. In 2002, New York City ranked 7th overall. In 2012, the most recent year available, the City’s ranking improved to 4th due to a 38 percent reduction in average PM2.5 levels since 2002. Successful implementation of numerous PlaNYC initiatives have led to cleaner air, including phasing-out heavy heating oil, promoting cleaner power, and reducing emissions from buses and City fleets. Later this fall, the Department of Health will issue a comprehensive report on the City’s air quality. For more information, see the 2013 PlaNYC Progress Report.
Proximity to Parks
Access to parks is a hallmark of a sustainable city. In 2007 the City’s PlaNYC set a goal that every resident would live within a ten-minute walk of a park by the year 2030. The City, supported by partners like conservancies and business improvement districts, is advancing toward that goal in part by renovating and re-purposing public spaces through initiatives like the Public Plaza Program and schoolyards-to-playground conversions. This chart shows that 229 schoolyards were repurposed in the past five years under PlaNYC. The percent of New Yorkers within a 10-minute walk of a park is estimated to have increased from 70 percent in 2007 to 76 percent today. For more information, see the 2013 PlaNYC Progress Report.
In Fiscal 2013 system wide job placements (and promotions) through the Department of Small Business Services’ (SBS) Workforce 1 program decreased by nine percent from 30,900 to 28,166. According to SBS, the decrease is due to slow vendor uptake of new guidelines for counting placements. This was the second consecutive drop in an otherwise steady increase since Fiscal 2005 when data was first reported.
New building jobs filed with the Department of Buildings increased for the third year in a row, up nearly sixty percent since Fiscal 2010. Major renovation jobs are also up by a more modest four percent. After falling sharply for four years in a row between Fiscal 2006 and Fiscal 2010, these upturns in jobs filed are significant improvements. However jobs files were, respectively, 55 percent (new) and 29 percent (renovation) lower than Fiscal 2001.
According to data from the US Census Bureau, 43 percent of New York City renters pay more than 35 percent of their income on housing, about average for the ten largest US cities. To help relieve this burden, since Fiscal 2004, the Department of Housing Preservation and Development has started, on average, 15,000 affordable units per year under its New Housing Marketplace Plan, completing 136,631 units, or 83 percent of its NHMP overall goal.
(Industrial Development Agency-Related) The upturn in projected taxes reported by the Industrial Development Authority (IDA) in Fiscal 2012 continued this year with a projected 91 percent increase over last year. Over the mid-term, Fiscal 2008 through Fiscal 2013, projected tax revenues have been relatively low, running at an average of $267 million per year. Over the long-term, tax revenues peaked at $5.9 billion in Fiscal 2005, before dropping to $799 million in Fiscal 2006.
Visitors to New York City
The number of visitors to New York City established a record in Fiscal 2013 topping 52 million according to the Economic Development Corporation. Despite the global financial crisis, the number of visitors fell by a very small percentage over the mid-term and has demonstrated robust growth over the long-term. While this is not an indicator that City government strongly influences, it is an important economic and quality-of-life measure.
311 Customer Service
Since its inception in March 2003, calls to the 311 Customer Service Center increased steadily through Fiscal 2011, peaking at 21.7 million. In Fiscal 2012 call volume fell for the first time but began tracking upward, again, in Fiscal 2013 reaching 19.9 million. On-line site visits, which have been tracked since Fiscal 2010, reached almost four million in Fiscal 2013. The nearly 24 million combined calls and on-line contacts is the largest volume in the Service Center’s history.
Cable Complaint Resolution
The Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, which handles cable service complaints, experienced an uptick in Fiscal 2013 when the average number of days to resolve a service complaint increased from 10 to 11 days compared to Fiscal 2012. Over the mid-term the rate has fallen slightly since Fiscal 2009. Over the long-term the time to resolve is trending downward.
Tax Refund Timeliness
After peaking in Fiscal 2006 at 57 days, average days to send out a property tax refund fell strongly through Fiscal 2009 then increased over the past four years. Conversely, since reporting began in Fiscal 2008, days-to-refund for business tax has fallen from 47 to 30 days or 36 percent. In Fiscal 2013, the response times for both types of taxes were nearly equal.
Purchase Order Processing Time
Between Fiscal 2012 and 2013, the average time for the Department of Citywide Administrative Services to process a purchase order dropped 20 percent from 0.7 days to 0.5 days continuing a steep downward trend that began in Fiscal 2010. Between Fiscal 2007, the first year this indicator was tracked, and Fiscal 2010, processing time fell just nine percent. Since an online direct order system was launched in Fiscal 2010, time to process a purchase order has fallen 83 percent.